Nothing is indestructible, and least of all – human health. Mankind has faced abysmal challenges to physical wellbeing; some of them have been eliminated for good, some of them have been reduced to a trifling matter that no longer poses fatal danger, while some are alive and well. Canadian Pharmacy (mycanadianpharmacyrx.com) brings you this overview of the most serious ailments that plague the human race – cringing as those might be, it is reassuring to know that they can be thwarted by the fruits of modern medicine.
Aldactone for arteriosclerosis
Aldactone (spironolactone) is Canadidan Pharmacy bestseller that helps fighting arteriosclerosis / atherosclerosis conditions that are associated with hypertonia and heart disease.
Arteriosclerosis is historically a general term for the thickening of the arterial wall, whatever the cause. Today, arteriosclerosis refers more specifically to a ‘normal’ aging of the arterial wall mainly affecting the muscular arteries and the renal arteries (nephroangiosclerosis). It is distinguished from atherosclerosis which is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposits in the arteries related to an elevated cholesterol level in the blood. Nevertheless, in everyday language, these two terms are sometimes confused by abuse of language.
Atheromatous plaques are an accumulation of various elements such as fat mainly represented by cholesterol, calcium and cell waste. Smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, alcoholism, diabetes, high blood pressure or lipid abnormalities such as excess cholesterol are factors that may aggravate or promote atherosclerosis. Genetic factors may also be considered when a family history of cardiovascular events is observed.
Symptoms vary according to arteries with atherosclerosis: myocardial infarction in coronary artery disease, stroke in the carotid and brain arteries, aneurysms, especially in the aorta or arteritis obliterans in the lower limbs .
Doctor may prescribe medications that reduce the levels of lipids and cholesterol in the blood or anticoagulants to prevent the risk of blood clots. Other drugs are used to fight ailments increasing the risks of cardiovascular diseases with tight control of blood pressure, diabetes, etc. In the case of a caliber of an artery too diminished by the atherosclerosis responsible for symptoms, surgery can be practiced.
Seroquel for bipolar disorder
Seroquel (quetiapine) is used to treat a number of serious mental illnesses, bipolar disorder among them.
Bipolar disorder is a severe mood disorder characterized by an alternation of ’mood exaltation’ phases, with increased energy and hyperactivity, and phases of decreased mood (depressed state ).
These ’manic-depressive’episodes are interspersed with periods during which the mood is normal and stable, for varying lengths of time.
During the manic episodes a person is irritable, overactive, feels little need to sleep, speaks a lot, and often has an exaggerated self-esteem, or even a feeling of omnipotence. Conversely, during depressive episodes, his level of energy is abnormally low, his mood is sullen, sad, with a loss of interest in various activities and projects.
It is one of the most frequent psychiatric diseases, affecting from 1 to 2.5% of the population. The disease usually appears in young adults (under 25 years) and becomes recurrent. The first episode is followed by other episodes of mood disorders in 90% of the cases.
It is a disorder that causes many social, professional and emotional disabilities and can frequently lead to suicide attempts. It has been recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the seventh leading cause of disability per year of life among 15-44 year olds among all diseases.
Bipolar disorders are characterized by a succession of episodes and frequent relapses, even under treatment.
The risk of suicide remains the main fear associated with this disease. Moreover, for biological reasons that are still poorly understood, bipolar disorders are frequently associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk, metabolic and hormonal diseases.
Studies show that, for all these reasons, the life expectancy of patients with bipolarity is 10 to 11 years on average less than the life expectancy of the rest of the population2.
Bactrim for pneumonia
Bactrim (co-trimoxazole) is administered for the treatment of bacterial infections, and pneumonia in particular.
Infection of the lungs can be caused by a bacterium, a virus or a fungus. These infectious agents reach the pulmonary alveoli, small balloon-like bags, which are located at the tip of the bronchioles. It happens that the infection also affects the bronchi: the term of pneumopathy is then evoked. The most common form is lobar pneumonia due to pneumococcal bacteria. The severity of a pneumonia depends on the extent of the lung area that is affected, but also on the bacterium or virus involved, the age and medical history of the affected person.
Bacterial pneumonia (or pneumopathy) accounts for a large proportion of pneumonia (lung infections). They usually affect only one lobe or pulmonary segment. Several bacteria may be involved, but this is usually a pneumococcus. Bacterial pneumonia can be acute lobar pneumonia, with sudden manifestations (intense chest pain, accelerated respiration, fatty cough with sputum, high fever) or atypical pneumonia. The latter is more difficult to diagnose because the symptoms are not characteristic of a respiratory disease (eg headache, vomiting, convulsions). Treatment of bacterial pneumonia is based on antibiotics.
The most common bacterial pneumonia is pneumococcal pneumonia. Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Klebsiellapneumoniae or staphylococcus are the other most commonly affected bacteria.
The manifestations vary according to the intensity and the severity of the disease as well as the age of the patient. Cough, respiratory discomfort, yellowish or greenish sputum, fatigue, decreased blood pressure, chest pain and temperature up to 105 degrees Fh may occur. Chills and the appearance of a bluish color of the nails and lips are sometimes found.
Treatment varies depending on the cause and intensity of pneumonia. For bacterial pneumonia, antibiotic therapy is essential. In the elderly, babies or those with signs of severe pulmonary involvement, hospitalization is often required. The treatment consists in this case to consider an antibiotic therapy administered by means of an infusion, rehydration and respiratory assistance.
Advair for status asthmaticus
Advair (fluticasone and salmeterol) is a combinatory medication used to alleviate severe asthma conditions in patients with status asthmaticus. Asthma is a chronic course disorder characterized by occasional or frequent and intense attacks of breathlessness (shortness of breath). The cause is a partial obstruction of the bronchi and bronchioles, produced by the contraction of their muscular walls. Unlike bronchitis, wherein the anxiety is constant, asthma attacks come and go, with wide variation in the level of obstruction at different times. Although the disease can not be cured, the attacks can be treated with appropriate care or, if they are not cared for, are solved, in general, quite naturally.
Asthma usually occurs during childhood or adolescence, but, in rare cases, the first attack can also occur in patients of middle age or older. Some attacks occur without there being any apparent reason. Others are caused by allergic reactions to things like pollen, dog or cat fur and house dust; infections (especially of the respiratory tract); by certain drugs; inhalation of irritants; by physical exercises; and emotional or psychological disturbances.
The most important symptom is shortness of breath accompanied by a sense of painless tightness in the chest and a characteristic hissing sound, whose intensity varies greatly. Sometimes only stethoscope he uses the physician is able to grasp the characteristic sound produced by wheezing; or this may be so strong as to overcome the noise of a crowded room. In severe cases, the expiration effort (the time when the wheezing is more pronounced) can cause sweating, increased heart rate and severe anxiety. Often the sufferer feels relief by sitting up straight with his arms held stiff to better support the chest. More increases shortness of breath, breathing becomes more rapid and shallow, and the product hissing breath increases. In very severe attacks the face and lips may become bluish (cyanosis) due to the decrease in oxygen supply to the movement, or the skin may become very pale and sweaty. Some asthma attacks are accompanied by a gloomy cough, produced by the accumulation of mucus in the lungs.
A series of rather violent asthma attacks can be very dangerous; Every year about 2,000 people die in the U.S. due to an asthma attack. Thanks to recent medical advances, people who are serious about the problem and consult your doctor regularly run few risks to die or remain personally invalid for asthma. Repeated severe asthma attacks in children can stunt growth and even cause a protrusion of the chest that predisposes them to ’emphysema later in life.
Glucophage for diabetes type 2
Glucophage (melformin) prevents high blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes type 2. It is defined by the presence of a chronic excess of sugar in the blood (hyperglycemia)
The worst risks for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are due to the onset of complications. Proper management of the disease, the respect of diet, physical activity and the constant monitoring of blood sugar levels are critical in the prevention of these diseases.
The complications of type 2 diabetes are mainly associated witheyes, kidneys, nervous system and cardiovascular system. People with diabetes are at risk of developing several types of eye disease, including retinopathy, cataracts and glaucoma, all diseases that can lead to blindness.
- Retinopathy is a disease of the most common eye in people with diabetes and is caused by a lesion of retinal blood vessels. In some cases, the blood vessels may swell and produce fluid.
- Cataract is a disease that blurs the eye’s retina. It is often an early complication of diabetes.
- Glaucoma is a too high fluid pressure inside the eye. It can affect the optic nerve and lead to vision loss.
Diabetes can damage the kidney blood vessels, making blood purification difficult and that’s why the number one cause of kidney failure.
Hyperglycemia can damage blood vessels and lead to cardiovascular complications, including hypertension, high cholesterol and thickening of the arteries. Hypertension (high blood pressure) is a disorder that occurs when the force with which the blood circulates in the blood vessels is too high and therefore can cause serious health problems. Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and stroke (representing about 75% of all deaths of people with diabetes).
Hyperglycemia can damage the nerve cells to the point that the nervous system may not send signals to the body properly. This disorder is called neuropathy. The nervous disorders mainly affect the hands and feet (diabetic foot), but the type of nerve damage can affect other body organs such as the digestive tract, the bladder and sexual organs causing often cases of erectile dysfunction.
Atripla for HIV
Atripla (efavirenz / emtricitabine / tenofovir disoproxilfumarate) is an three-in-one medication for HIV patients which in itself provides an all-inclusive regimen for HIV-positive people.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that is responsible for AIDS. This is why it is also called the AIDS virus. It’s a lentivirus. It is transmitted through blood and sexual contact, therefore is the cause of a sexually transmitted infection. Once the infection is installed, it is not yet known to cure it, treatments know only block or slow down the progress of the virus.
Why is the virus still taunting doctors after 25 years? Just because it’s not an ordinary virus. Take the example of chicken pox. Its virus does not mutate as it proliferates in the host cell; It is therefore combatable by lymphocytes. Membrane lymphocytes can prepare an antibody “recipe” that could kill varicella virus if it returned. In the case of HIV, reverse transcriptase makes errors during retro-transcripts (passage from RNA to DNA): about one hundred times more than for another virus. Thus, because of these frequent mutations, HIV is never completely identical to another HIV. So we can not make a vaccine for the moment to counter all, since they are all different!
For the same reason, drugs used to fight HIV select resistant strains all the more easily because the virus mutates quickly. In other words, the drugs used to treat patients all become more or less quickly ineffective. It is to avoid this that antiretroviral drugs are always given in associations, usually by three. These are triple therapies.
In addition, HIV targets CD4 + T lymphocytes, that is, immune cells that orchestrate immune defences. In fact, this virus destroys the body cells that are most useful in fighting viruses! (But it seems that HIV parasites other cells, including immune).
Because of this, AIDS promotes opportunistic illnesses (eg, brain toxoplasmosis), ie diseases that can only affect people whose immune defenses are greatly diminished (immunosuppression). These diseases can become very serious: in general, they pose a life-threatening risk to AIDS patients.
The research effort to fight HIV infection has been (and still is) very important, to identify targets, ie how to hinder or kill the virus. The most frequently used drugs are molecules that interfere with the synthesis of DNA or RNA: the replication of the virus is therefore slowed down or blocked. Molecules are also used which interfere with the fusion of the virus and the target cell.
The medicines used today block the progress of the virus for the majority of patients who have access to it and thus prevent them from dying of AIDS. However they also have significant side effects. In some countries the cost of treatment is paid for by the state or by NGOs. But this is not the case everywhere. It is estimated that two thirds of those infected in the world do not have access to treatment.
Nolvadex for breast cancer
Down to arguably the most dismaying ailment that grieves mankind, cancer. At Canadian Pharmacy cancer drugs are maid available and affordable, and one of the most frequently ordered medicines is Nolvadex. Nolvadex (tamoxifen) is a non-steroidal anti-estrogen drug used to treat breast cancer by blocking the hormone used by cancerous cells for growth and repletion.
The breast cancer (or breast cancer) is a formation of tissue made up of cells that grow in an uncontrolled and abnormally within the mammary gland. The tumor in the initial stage refers to confined cancer in breast adipose tissue (stage 1). The tumorcan then spread in the immediate vicinity (stage 2), extend to the underlying tissues of the chest wall (stage 3), and then to other parts of the body (stage 4, metastatic or advanced breast). Both the prognosis that treatment are influenced by the stage in which the tumor is located at the time of diagnosis. There are also different types of breast cancer, with growth rates and response to different therapies. This means that the tumor tissue should always be tested to determine the type of cancer.
The therapeutic options currently available include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and biologic therapies. These can be used alone or in combination, depending on the progress of the disease stage. When choosing the type of treatment also affect the woman’s age and his desire to eventually have children after treatment. Some methods can indeed induce early menopause, although the technique of cryopreservation of oocytes for the treatments brings new perspectives.
Hormone therapy is the administration of drugs that block the activity of the hormone estrogen, which is thought to be involved in the onset and development of at least one-third of breast cancers.
The mechanisms of action are mainly three:
- prevent the tumor cell to be influenced by hormones produced by the body through the administration of an antiestrogen;
- inhibit the production of estrogen by blocking the action of an enzyme, aromatase, which converts androgens into oestrogens (aromatase inhibitors)
- inhibit the production of estrogen produced by the ovaries using LHRH analogues (ovarian ablation or suppression).
The possibility of being subjected to hormonal therapy – prior to surgery to reduce the size of the neoplasm or in the next five years to counteract a possible recurrence depends on the presence of estrogen and / or progesterone receptors on tumorcells (seen through the histological examination), the presence or absence of contraindications to the treatment and / or other associated pathologies. If the tumor does not have these receptors, the therapy is not indicated.
The mechanism of action of antiestrogens consists of preventing estrogen combines with the tumor cells and stimulates growth. They can be used in women who have not reached menopause (was pre-menopausal) and women who are already in menopause (postmenopausal state).
Aromatase inhibitors, already indicated for women in menopause, reduce the amount of estrogen circulating in the body and consequently the amount of hormones that reach cancer cells in the breast.
In women of premenopausal ovarian ablation lowers estrogenlevels and inducing a temporary menopause, thus contributing to block the growth of cancer cells. Hormone therapy can be actuated in sequence after chemotherapy or alone in cases where represents the most suitable treatment.